vygotsky Tag

By Dr Jeremy Koay A limited view The most common assessments are those that seek to measure candidates’ abilities. High-stakes language assessments, such as IELTS and TOEFL, are typically highly-standardised, and examiners usually display a ‘neutral and...

By Dr Jeremy Koay A limited view The zone of proximal development (ZPD) and Krashen’s notion of i + 1 are sometimes misunderstood as expressing the same idea (Lantolf, Thorne & Poehner, 2015). The main difference between...

By Dr Jeremy Koay A limited view Some teachers and students, particularly in an exam-oriented learning environment, think that group work is a waste of time. This is often because group activities are not well-designed. Due to...